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ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION IN INDIA AND ITS SPREAD

ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION IN INDIA AND ITS SPREAD


MuslimCreed | India is a region located in the South Asian Region where their economy is based on a combination of cultivation of grains in mostly irrigated plots of land and plowed using bulls, buffalo, sheep, goats and donkeys. The cultural situation of India when Islam entered was actually Buddhism, as well as the emergence of various political and political parents, namely between the Brahmanic-Hinduism caste and Buddhist beliefs and the emergence of various political elites, especially the dominant Rajput elite with Hindu political elites. In such conditions, local government takes a more dominant role in exercising its influence on its people. Not only that, various powers that are excessive in using their power are almost easy to find in every region.


The general picture of Indian society when Islam entered the region, shows a very difficult indication of the process of Islamization. This shows how strong the cultural influence and dominance that has been formed by its predecessors and rulers in creating religious ideologies and cultural sentiments. There are five important things that characterize Indian society that rejects anything from outside, namely language, religion, tradition, and hatred of foreigners, panatism and cultural arrogance. It is known that since 6000 BC the teachings of Hinduism with caste rules have been widely used in the midst of Indian society. Not long after the development of Hinduism, a new teaching emerged in India under Sudarta Gautama, a Kapihuvastu king in 500 BC. This teaching is known as Buddha.


Looking at the proximity, the location between India and Persia is not impossible to say that in India there are many Persians who live and settle and wander in India, therefore in Bombay you can find a community of people who adhere to the Zoroastrian Religion.


In the years leading up to the entry of Islam, Hinduism was the most important religion and was widely embraced by the people of India. Almost all the kings who were in power embraced Hinduism. The great pressure of the Brahmin caste group against Buddhists caused their group to expect another power to come that could provide protection and avoid the cruelty of the Hindu rulers. On the other hand, there is a struggle for power among Hindus. Hindu-Buddhist conflicts are generally evident in the trade competition. Hindu groups tend to prefer to monopolize, while Buddhists are more active in making profits. Because Buddhist groups are more defeated in the competition, eventually they are more open to accept Islam. Therefore, the majority of Indian Muslims came from Buddhists who had been oppressed and excluded by the domination of Hindu power.


When Islam began to enter the territory of India, both in the first period of the Umayyad and Abbasid periods, the social, cultural, political, and religious characteristics still showed the same thing. Each region has a figure who holds regional authority with all his authority. In fact, Islam which was later introduced by the Muslim conquerors to the Indian Subcontinent was a unique teaching. He walked quite a long time from Arabia across Persia with a variety of cultural riches that are quite well established. Culture is only agricultural, urbanization, and administrative traditions, but also perfectly organized forms of religious reality.


Islam in India was growing rapidly when a slave of the Turkish empire was able to free himself and he succeeded in establishing a small, fully sovereign kingdom with its capital in Ghazni. Although he did not reign for long, he was quite successful as the forerunner of the Ghazna kingdom which would one day play an important role in India.


From the description above, it is clear that the entry of Islam in India was brought by traders accidentally. The teachings of Islam are favored by some Hindus who are tired of the behavior of the Brahmins who abuse their position. In addition, Islamic teachings do not recognize caste. After entering India, Islam began to spread from West India to the East. Finally stood the small Islamic kingdoms. King after king of Muslims ruled alternately in the several dynasties they founded. In addition, Islam also experienced the peak of glory and gold during the Mughal Dynasty. Because during the reign of the Mughal Dynasty, Islam left a lot of historical evidence such as the Jami mosque and the Taj Mahal. As we know the Taj Mahal is a building that is included in the seven wonders of the world.


Conclusion


Based on the description of the discussion that has been presented on the previous pages, the conclusions that can be drawn are:

1. Islam entered India in two ways, namely; formal and informal. 

The entry of Islam in India at the time of the Prophet was mostly through informal channels. Little is known about the formal entry of Islam. The Messenger of Allah had known about the Indian area from traders who had long traded relations with the area. Islam came to India brought by General Muhammad Bin Qasim. He attacked Sind in the eighth century, soon after the rise of Islam. The image of a young Muslim conqueror and warrior would be repeated over the next few centuries, but this time it was an assailant from the North. They are Turkish fighters, tougher and do not know Compromise about Islam, driven by the enthusiasm of those who have recently converted. Their attacks on India for looting and stealing are often disguised as jihad or holy war in the name of Islam.



2. The first introduction of Islam to India set the tone for the relationship between Hindus and Muslims. 

Islam came to India brought by General Muhammad Bin Qasim. He attacked Sind in the eighth century, soon after the rise of Islam. The image of a young Muslim conqueror and warrior would be repeated over the next few centuries, but this time it was an assailant from the North. Islam was growing in India during the reign of Akbar, his character and leadership made many Indians embrace Islam. His territory in India has also expanded. The number of Indians who converted to Islam made Islam grow rapidly.



3. Progress in the scientific 

Progress in the scientific field that was very prominent at that time, among others, during the reign of Aurangzeb, namely the emergence of a historian named Abu Fadzel with his work Akhbarnameh and Aini Akbar who explained the history of the Mughal kingdom based on the figure of its leader. Local government is held by a SipahSalar (head commander) while sub-districts are held by faujdar (commander). Civilian positions are also given a military-style rank. These officials are indeed required to participate in military training. Akbar implemented a universal policy of tolerance (sulakhul).


 With this policy, all Indians are seen as equal. They are not distinguished because of ethnic and religious differences. There is a local government system that is used to collect agricultural products and protect farmers. 


Each peasant village is headed by a local official, called a muqaddam or patel, whose position can be inherited, who is responsible to his superiors for depositing income and preventing crime. The peasants were protected by ownership rights to land and the right to inherit it, but they were also bound by it. During Akbar's time, the development of Islam in the Mughal Empire reached an interesting phase, at which time Akbar proclaimed a new way of religion, namely the concept of Din-i-Ilahi. Because of this school Akbar received criticism from various levels of Muslims. Along with the advancement of the economy, the fields of art and culture are also developing. The outstanding works of art are literary works by court poets, both Persian and Indian.


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