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The definition of Islamic law and its explanation according to scholars

The definition of Islamic law and its explanation according to scholars

The definition of Islamic law

Muslimcreed - As the largest adherent of the Muslim religion, Indonesia is quite aware of Islamic law. Indeed there are many things we will learn. For example, the sources of Islamic law, the division of Islamic law, the objectives of Islamic law and examples of Islamic law.

Awareness of the importance of studying Islamic law in addition to providing understanding, softening the mind and heart so that a sense of tolerance arises. It turns out that Islamic law can also be used as a medium for learning to behave and behave better. because it doesn't just teach how to interact socially, how to build relationships with the community.

But it also leads to the benefit of the world and the hereafter. As we know, the plurality of people with various religions, ethnicities and groups in Indonesia is actually the most vulnerable to division. However, thanks to the presence of Islamic law, in fact the community's tolerance is quite good. although there are still groups who disagree.

Understanding Islamic Law According to Scholars and Experts

The definition of Islamic law according to several figures, can be interpreted as follows.

1. Abdul Ghani Abdullah

According to Abdul Ghani Abdullah in his book published in Gema Insani Press, he stated that Islamic law is a law that originates and becomes part of the Islamic religion. He also mentioned that the conception of Islamic law as the basis and legal framework established by Allah.

Islamic law, according to Abdul Ghani Abdullah, does not only regulate between humans and their God. but also regulates the relationship between humans and humans. It also regulates the relationship between humans and the universe.

2. Amir Syarifuddin

In contrast to the opinion of Amir Syarifuddin, according to him, Islamic law is a set of rules for Allah's revelation and the Sunnah of the Prophet regarding the behavior of converts who are recognized and believed.

3. Eva Iryani

According to Eva Iryani, Islamic law is Islamic law which contains a system of rules based on the revelation of Allah SWT and the Sunnah of the Prophet regarding the behavior of people who can be burdened with obligations, which are recognized and believed, which bind all adherents.

Eva Iryani explained that the behavior in question was referring to all the behaviors and attitudes of the Prophet. It is also stated that Shari'a is taken based on terms that follow the laws that Allah Almighty has ordered for His people with amaliyah.

Sources of Islamic Law

The presence of Islamic law turned out to have a purpose and purpose. One of them is to unite the differences. Given the many interpretations of Islamic teachings. The interpretation that arises is what triggers differences of opinion, conflicts, radical understandings and the selfish nature of each group.

Therefore, Islamic law is present as an intermediary. Why the middleman? Because Islamic law is compiled based on Islamic law sources, quoted from the old NU Online. 

The sources of Islamic law used, refer to the following.

1. Al-Qur'an

The most basic source of Islamic law is the Qur'an. As the holy book of Muslims, of course the Qur'an is the pillar and enforcer. Where is the Qur'an a direct message from Allah SWT which was sent down through the Angel Gabriel. Then Jibril conveyed it directly to the Prophet Muhammad.

The contents of the Qur'an contain recommendations, provisions, prohibitions, commands, wisdom and much more. In fact, in the Qur'an it is also conveyed how people have morals, and how humans should have morals.

2. Hadith

Hadith as a source of Islam that is no less important. Why is hadith used for Islamic law? Because the Hadith is a message, advice, behavior or words of the Prophet Muhammad. All the words, deeds, approvals and decrees of the Prophet Muhammad, will be made as provisions of Islamic law.

Hadith contains detailed rules and general rules. The content of the hadith is still an explanation from the Qur'an. Expansion or meaning in the general public, the hadith that has experienced an expansion of meaning is more familiarly called the sunnah.

3. Ijma'

Maybe there is something foreign about the third source of Islamic law, namely ijma'. Ijma' was formed based on the agreement of all mujtahid scholars. The scholars referred to here are scholars after the death of the Prophet Muhammad.

The agreement of the scholars, Ijma 'can still be accounted for during the companions, tabi'in and tabi'ut tabi'in. The agreement of these scholars was made because the spread of Islam was increasingly widespread in all directions.

With the spread of Islamic teachings, there must be differences between the spreaders of one another. well, the presence of ijma 'is expected to be a unifier of existing differences.

4. Qiyas

Qiyas doesn't seem like many people know. Even if there are people who know, there are still differences in belief that this qiyas is not included in the sources of Islamic law. Nevertheless, the scholars have agreed on Qiyas as a source of Islamic law.

Qiyas is a source of law that mediates when there is a problem. If a problem is found for which a solution is not found in the Al-Quran, Hadith, Ijma 'it can be found in qiyas.

Qiyas is explaining something that is not mentioned in the three previous points (Al-quran, hadith and Ijma ') by comparing or making an analogy using reason and logic.

The four sources of Islamic law above show that Islamic law is not just ordinary law. Because basically refers to 4 very fundamental things.

In fact, there are several other opinions, apart from referring to the four sources of law above, there are other sources of Islamic law, namely:

  • Istihsan,
  • Istishab,
  • Saddudz-dzari'ah or preventive measures,
  • urf or custom
  • and Qaul, the companion of the Prophet SAW.

Islamic Law Division

When viewed from the division of Islamic law, it has several parts. Some are obligatory, some are sunnah, haram, makruh and permissible. Here's the review.

1. Mandatory

I'm sure, many are well aware of this mandatory word. It is said that if you do an action you will get a reward. If you leave your obligations, you will get torment or sin. Except for people who do not know the science/rules.

2. Sunnah

It is said to be sunnah if someone who does the command will get a reward. If you don't do it, it's not a sin or you are not tortured. It's just that, many people suggest doing the sunnah, because it's a shame if there is an opportunity to collect charity, it is not used.

3. Haram

In everyday life, Muslims have many rules regarding what is halal and what is haram. It is said to be haram if things that are prohibited are still violated, it will be recorded as a sin. If you leave things that are forbidden, it will be recorded as getting a reward.

4. Makruh

It is said to be makruh if the rules that are makruh are left behind, then it is much better. whereas if what is forbidden is still done, then it is not good or not good. Neither is it good for yourself or for others. For example, smoking, for yourself is not good for health. It's not good for people either.

5. Mubah

It is said that it is permissible to do things that are permissible in religion, or that which should be left behind is not done.

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