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Basic Concepts and Principles of Sharia Economy in the Study of the Qur'an

Basic Concepts and Principles of Sharia Economy in the Study of the Qur'an

Muslimcreed.com - The economy is an updated thing of human life. Everyone will always try to get a decent life to meet their daily needs. But not sporadically we also find bad things done by people who are not responsible, using them casually to harm or even deprive a person of the property.


To minimize these actions, it is hoped that a rule that can anticipate and even stop these actions so that there will be no more various kinds of things that will damage the order of people's lives. Therefore, as a system, the economy cannot be separated from its system, namely Islam. Because the economy cannot be separated according to Islamic rules to create tranquility & tranquility in citizens.


Therefore, a strong and transparent economic system must be balanced using wise and professional provisions and policies on choosing the origin of economic power. As a primary step in solving the problem of social and economic inequality, it means using integrating the forum of authority from economic power using Islamic studies at this time &thriving as a result of making the implementation of the way of life in the economy.


The Quran with its entire teachings comes to be the source &stydge of behavior. Because economic actions &alright behaviors are part of people's activities, all economic activities must be in a quranic system.


Zainuddin Ali stated that a sharia economy is a group of legal norms that are relied on the Quran & hadith to regulate the economy among citizens. In another sense, according to Mardani, Islamic economics means a business or economic activity carried out by individuals, groups, or business entities in the form of rules or non-legal forms, using commercial & non-commercial purposes and carried out according to the order of Islamic religious teachings.


Basic Principles of Economics in the Qur'an


One of the basic principles of Islam is the belief that every Muslim behavior is a reflection & manifestation of worship to Allah SWT.  Thus all Muslim activities are non-detached according to the vertical relationship with Allah SWT. The implication of this principle is that economic activities are non-independent of worship to Allah SWT. Thus economic wealth must be used to meet all the biological needs of people to increase their devotion to Allah SWT.


According to the Islamic view, wealth and even everything belong to Allah. Seeking, collecting & possessing wealth is not prohibited as long as it is recognized as a gift and mandate of Allah Swt. The Quran does not oppose the possession of the property as much as possible, even the Koran expressly &repeatedly commands that it should make earnest efforts to seek sustenance which the Qur'an termed "fadhl Allâh" (overflow of the gift of Allah). In another verse, the Koran refers to wealth as "khayr" (goodness).  This means that treasures are valued as something good. Julia's wealth is considered to be "qiyam" (the backing of life).


Human Functions as a Developer & Builder


It is explained in the Quran surah Hud [11]: 61 :


وَإِلَىٰ ثَمُودَ أَخَاهُمْ صَالِحًا ۚ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ ۖ هُوَ أَنْشَأَكُمْ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ وَاسْتَعْمَرَكُمْ فِيهَا فَاسْتَغْفِرُوهُ ثُمَّ تُوبُوا إِلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّ رَبِّي قَرِيبٌ مُجِيبٌ


It means: "And to Tsamud (We sent) their brother Shaleh. Shaleh said: "O my people, worship Allah, there is no one for you a God but Him. He has formed you by earth (land) and produced you its prospers, therefore beg His forgiveness, and then repent to Him, Verily my Lord is very near (His mercy) again allowing (the prayers of His servants)".


According to Zamakhsyari Abdul Majid Q.s. Hud [11]: 61 confirms the function of people as developers, developments, and creators. It can be understood according to the illumination of this verse that man was created according to this earth & made a resident who worked on it to prosper it. All the facilities and necessities that still exist on the vast expanse of the earth are provided for humans. Of course, the materials in question are not finished materials but all require processing and processing. In this condition, the creative power of people is needed.


Man must try to build something and create according to the materials available by using the facilities that have also been given to him. To make it happen, Allah Swt. gives people the capital of work in the form of knowledge, as hinted in Q.S. Al-Baqarah [2]: 31.


Guidance of the Quran in Obtaining Wealth


Analyzing the various verses above, it is understood that the earth and all its contents are not intended to be owned by an exclusive people or nation but for all kinds of people. Therefore it is the right of every individual to receive his sustenance on the face of this earth using a good way, not to monopolize the activities of production, consumption & distribution of every economic good. The Qur'an has given guidance to humans to obtain wealth, namely through good work & effort & halal, without using the vanity. Consider the example of Q.s. al-Nisâ: [4]: 29 being the following:


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَنْ تَرَاضٍ مِنْكُمْ ۚ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا


It means: "O people of faith, thou shalt not eat one another's a property in a vanity way, except to use the prevailing way of commerce using the consensual among you. And thou shalt not kill thyself; verily Allah is all-merciful to you."


According to al Maraghi, the term "eating" must be interpreted broadly by taking all its forms because the frequency of utilization of property is more poly in the target to be eaten & the treasures eaten must be halal.


From an economic perspective, the attitude of simplicity, economy, not exaggeration, and not being miserly are some of the aspects of behavior that are advocated in Islamic teachings. The concept of equilibrium in economic behavior aims to avoid the spirit of consumerism. The basis of this expression is Q.s. al-A'raf [7]: 31 being the following:


يَا بَنِي آدَمَ خُذُوا زِينَتَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ


It means: "O son of Adam, put on your beautiful garments at every (entering) mosque, eat and drink, & do not overdo it. Surely God does not like excessive people."


The substance of the above verses is the need for reasonable, non-miserly & not wasteful possessions. This can be observed using the use of the term tabdzîr which is claimed to be ikhwân al-Shayâthîn (friends of the sheik) & term isrâf. Meanwhile, Muhammad Rasyîd Ridhâ stated that the attitude of iqtishâd and i'tidâl (economical and moderate/simple) is one of Islam's behaviors towards the property, as is his view on various other issues.


From the information above, it can be concluded that Islamic economics or Sharia economics is a social science that investigates the economic problems of citizens inspired by Islamic values.  The Qur'an is a lifeline for Muslims. The Qur'an also acts as a primary legal basis in the economic implementation of Shari'a. This is seen from the many verses of the Qur'an that regulate the way of an economy based on Islam. Among them is the budget to meet human needs, rules about buying and selling, zakat, how to obtain & use property in the rules about usury in the Qur'an there are rules in the Qur'an which are the basis for the implementation of the shari'a economy.

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