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The Story of Imam Ahmad's Resilience in Facing Cross-Regime Intimidation

 


MUSLIMCREED Imam Ahmad is the founder of one of the schools of fiqh that still exists today, the Hambali school. The determination of this Iraqi cleric deserves thumbs up. He had met four generations of the Abbasid regime during his lifetime, during which time he was subjected to severe trials from one regime to the next. Imam Ibn Kathir in Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah reports:

Ibn Kathir's explanation above explains that Imam Ahmad was tested for three successive generations of regimes, excluding the regime after him, namely the Caliph Al-Mutawakkil. This is because in the first three regimes Imam Ahmad was tested to acknowledge the Qur'an as a creature by a leader who had been possessed by Mu'tazilah theology, while in the fourth regime he received a worldly test because Al-Mutawakkil did not torture him, but offered him the luxuries of the world.

Thanks to his fortitude through this test of faith, by insisting that the Qur'an is qadim, Imam Ahmad was later dubbed Imam Ahlusunnah wal Jama'ah. This honorary title is not assigned to priests of other schools, both Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Maliki, or Imam Shafi'i, even though they were born first.

Caliph Al-Ma'mun . exam

The reign of Caliph Al-Ma'mun was a glorious phase for science in the Muslim world. His leadership time was devoted to a number of science projects, even some sources note that he often did research for trivial things while having unique scientific value. His research projects are not only on the religious sciences, but also general sciences that many Muslim leaders have not done before.

Unfortunately, his interest in Greek philosophy made him tend to think rationally so that he was more interested in Mu'tazilite understanding. In the view of this rationalist school, the Qur'an is not a qadim, but a creature. Unlike Ahlusunnah wal Jama'ah who say qadim. This is where the problem starts. Al-Ma'mun then exercised religious authority in his government. He undertook a major program to get rid of the scholars who disagreed. This event became known as Al-Mihnah.

All scholars were gathered to the palace and one by one tested. If he wants to recognize the Qur'an as a creature, then he is safe. If not, then prepare to be thrown into prison and suffer a grievous torment. There are those who agree with Al-Ma'mun, there are also those who pretend to agree, and some are still adamant in their opinion that the Qur'an is qadim. One of the scholars who insist on his opinion is Imam Ahmad. He was imprisoned and exiled.

Caliph Al-Mu'tashim Exam The regime changed after Caliph Al-Ma'mun died in 218 H with Caliph Al-Mu'tashim as the holder of the seat of the next caliphate. Al-Mu'tashim inherited the ideology of the previous regime. During his reign, he continued the Al-Mihnah program. During the time of Al-Mu'tashim, Imam Ahmad was not only imprisoned, but also received a number of tortures.

Imam Ahmad had several times been tested directly by Al-Mu'tashim, but still he was adamant with his views. Until finally the caliph was annoyed and handed it over to the fiqh experts and judges in the palace. There was a heated debate that lasted for three days. However, not once was Imam Ahmad's argument broken.

Caliph Al-Watsiq Ujian exam

After Al-Mu'tashim died, the next government was led by Caliph Al-Watsiq. Like the two previous regimes, Al-Mihnah continues to be a government program. Many scholars, especially from the fuqaha and hadith experts, have accepted this test and received a number of tortures, one of which is Imam Ahmad who is still adamant in his creed.

One of the efforts made by Al-Watsiq to enforce his religious authority is to write the pronunciation: la ilaha illalllah rabbul qur'anil creatures throughout the mosque. Not only that, he also forbade scholars from the Shafi'i and Maliki circles to enter the mosque because they do not share the same ideology as him. In the slightest, Imam Ahmad did not want to accept the gift of wealth from the Caliph. Even several times Al-Mutawakkil sent special allowances for him, he always refused. Until one time the Caliph sent him money through his son, and the son accepted because he was not comfortable refusing a gift from the Caliph. Imam Ahmad actually scolded his son and did not want to eat the food sent by his son.

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