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History of Islamic Thought al-Farabi

History of Islamic Thought al-Farabi
History of Islamic Thought al-Farabi


Greek philosophy has inspired many Muslims to study and explore more about their ideas and knowledge. Moreover, in its development, Islam has many problems that require believed to have the ability to refix them. This of course requires the ideal role of the factor so that Islamic philosophy arises. Islamic philosophy itself gave birth to many Muslim philosophers, one of which was Al-Farabi.


He mastered much self-control in scientific research and mastered several languages. He selects a simple life and is known as an individual that is simple and prefers to show others. Al-Farabi produced many works, and also to have the ability to expand his ideas, he equated his publications right into Latin, English, Almanian, Arabic, and French.


Al-Farabi Biography

Al-Farabi is the nickname for Abu Nasr Ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ibn Auzalagh. Al-Farabi was birthed in a town called Wasij which is an area of the city of Farab. Presently, the city of Farab is known as the city of Atrar / Transoxiana in 257 H / 870 AD. Al-Farabi by middle ages Latins was nicknamed Abu Nasr (Abunaser), while the nickname Al-Farabi was drawn from the name of the city of Farab, where he was birthed. His dad was a Persian basic and his mom was Turkish.


Read : Biography of Fazrul Rahman

 

From a very early age, Al-Farabi was known as a child that such as to learn and was also diligent and he could grasp various languages, consisting of Iranian, Turkestan, and Kurdistan. also inning accordance with Munawir Sjadzali, Al-Farabi can talk seventy various languages; but he proactively talks, just 4 languages: Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Kurdish.


At a young age, Al-Farabi transferred to Baghdad which during that time was a facility of knowledge. In Baghdad, he examined with Abu Bakr Al-Saraj to study the rules of the Arabic language, and with Abu Bisyr Mattius ibn Yunus (a Christian) to study reasoning and philosophy. After that, he transferred to Harran which was the facility of Greek society in Australia or Europe Small, and examined with Yuhanna ibn Jailan. Later on, he returned to Baghdad to strengthen his philosophy.


Al-Farabi received the title of Second Instructor because he was the first to integrate reasoning right into Arabic society. After that, he transferred to Damascus, where he became familiarized with Saif Ad-Daulah Al-Hamdani, Sultan of the Hamdan empire in Aleppo. Finally, Al-Farabi was provided the position of royal residence cleric. He lived a simple life and used his income for the charity and dispersed it to the bad in Aleppo and Damascus. Al-Farabi passed away at the age of 80 in Aleppo in 950 AD.


Al-Farabi.'s works

Al-Farabi is the best Islamic philosopher, he has expertise in various areas, consisting of linguistics, mathematics, chemistry, astronomy, military, songs, all-natural sciences, divinity, fiqh, and mantic. However, sadly, very few works of Al-Farabi are known because his works are through treatises which are brief essays and very few are through large publications with the in-depth conversation, most of his works have been shed. The titles of his works are as complies with:


  • Al-Jam'u baina Ra'yay Al-Hakimain Aflathun wa Aristhu;
  • Tahqiq Ghardh Aristhu fi Kitab ma Ba'da Ath-Thabi'ah;
  • Syarah Mins of Zainun Al-Kabir Al-Greek;
  • At-Ta'liqat;
  • The treatise of fima Yajibu Ma'rifat Qabla Ta'allumi al-Falsafah;
  • Tahshil As-Sa'adah Book;
  • Treatise fi Itsbat Al-Mufaraqah;
  • 'Uyun Al-Masa'il;
  • Ara 'Ahl Al-Medina Al-Fadhilah;
  • Ihsa Al-Ulum wa At-Ta'rif bi Aghradita;
  • Maqalat fi Ma'ani Al-Aql;
  • Fusul Al-Hukm;
  • Treatise of Al-Aql;
  • As-Siyasa Al-Madaniyah;
  • Al-Masa'il Al-Falsafiyah wa Al-Ajwibah Anha.

The hallmark of Al-Farabi's works is to provide reviews and explanations of the works of Aristotle, Iskandar Al Fraudismy, and Plotinus. The real works of Al-Farabi are as complies with:


Al jami'u Baina Ra'yai Al Hakimain Afalatoni Al Hahiy was Aristho-trails (meeting/mix of viewpoints between Plato and Aristotle);

  • Tahsilu as Sa'adah (looking for happiness);
  • As Suyasatu Al Madinah (federal government politics);
  • Fususu Al Taram (the significance of truth);
  • Arro'u Ahli Al Madinati Al Fadilah (main federal government thoughts);
  • As Shisyah (political science);
  • Ihsho'u Al Ulum (collection of various knowledge), and so on.


AL-FARABI'S THINKING

Al-Farabi.'s Thought Outcomes

Al-Farabi's philosophy has various designs and purposes from various other viewpoints because it takes the teachings of the previous philosophers, rebuilds them in a type that's by the social range, and organizes them methodically and consistently. However, some of Al-Farabi's philosophy is considered incorrect so it's declined by modern scientific research. However, Al-Farabi still had an important role and a great influence in the area of thought in the moments that complied. The following are some of Al-Farabi's thoughtful ideas:


Philosophy

Al-Farabi specifies philosophy as Al Scientific research bilmaujudaat bima Hiya Al Maujudaat which means scientific research that examines the real nature of all that exists. He succeeded in laying the structures of philosophy in Islam. he also said that there was no contradiction between the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. Al-Farabi has a thoughtful basis by strengthening knowledge with all that exists to bring the acknowledgment of Allah as its developer.


Prophetic Philosophy

The 10 minds can be equated with the angels in Islamic teachings. The philosophers can know the significance because they can communicate with the Tenth mind. Prophets or Apostles can also receive revelations because they can communicate with the Tenth Intelligence. However, the position of the Prophet or Apostle is greater compared to the philosophers.


Read also : Islamic concept of beauty in philosophy

 

The philosophers can communicate with the Tenth Intelligence because of their initiatives, specifically by practice and contemplation, while the Prophet or Apostle is the chosen one, so they can communicate with the Tenth Intelligence, out their initiatives but a present from God. 

The philosophers communicate with the Tenth Intelligence through factor, specifically the mustafad factor, while the Prophet or Apostle isn't by a factor, but with the power of knowledge called imagination. 

The degree of imagination offered to the Prophet or Apostle is so solid that it can associate with the Tenth Intelligence without the education that philosophers have needed to undergo. This philosophy was advanced by Al-Farabi to oppose the sects that didn't count on the Prophet/Rasul (discovery) as brought by al-Razi and others during that time. This concept of prophethood can be considered as al-Farabi's attempt to reconcile religious beliefs with philosophy.


Political Concept

Prophetic philosophy is closely related to Al-Farabi's political concept. He has written several treatises on national politics, one of the most well-known which is Ara' Ahl al-Madinah al-Fadilah (The City of Models). In the treatise he explained the City overall of combined components, just like the organism of the body; if there belongs that harms, after that the others will respond and look after it.


Read also : Islamic Concept of Khalifah


In the city, each participant must be provided a task commensurate with his ability. The essential job in culture is to work as the going

of the community so that in advance of culture must be healthy and balanced and solid, wise, and love scientific research and justice because the going is the resource of community consistency. 

The best of goings is the Prophet/Rasul because a Prophet/Rasul certainly holds great and useful regulations for the community so that culture becomes thriving and great. The job of the going of specify isn't just to control the specify but also to educate individuals to have great morals.


Along with al-Madinah al-Fadilah, there's also al-Madinah al-Jahilah, specifically a culture whose participants aim just to look for physical enjoyment. After that, there's al-Madinah al-Fasiqah, which is a culture whose participants have the same knowledge as participants of al-Madinah al-Fadilah but their habits coincide with that of participants of al-Madinah al-Jahilah.

Eternal souls are fadilah souls (perhaps residing in Medina al-Fadilah) specifically souls that do great, souls that can damage far from physical bonds, therefore they are not ruined by the destruction of the body. When it comes to the spirit of Jahilah, it's a spirit that doesn't get to excellence, (perhaps the one that resides in Medina al-Jahilah), a spirit that could not free itself from the bondage of issue and will be ruined by the destruction of the body. 

Fasiqah spirit is a spirit that knows enjoyment but rejects it (perhaps the one that resides in Medina al-Fasiqah), will not be ruined and will be eternal, but eternal in misery. When it comes to paradise and the Specify inning by Al-Farabi is a spiritual issue.