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Peeling off the History of Pan-Islamism

 

The entrance of Western influence right into the Islamic globe in the 19th century, made the problem of Muslims that had formerly been slumped because of deviant teachings of the tarekat, to be also even worse. Seeing this, the Islamic reformers attempted to find up with ideas that might have the ability to awaken Muslims from this adversity. 


Peeling off the History of Pan-Islamism


Many ideas arise, for instance, filtration of religious beliefs, modernization in several areas, progressing education, and learning, and changing the framework of the Islamic federal government. However, amongst these reform ideas, there are various other more fascinating ideas, specifically Pan-Islamism.


Pan-Islamism developed as a reaction to the hegemony of Western influence in the Islamic globe. Understand that desires the unity of all Muslims under one caliph's management. Although many support this understanding, in the process, this understanding doesn't have a considerable influence on the Islamic globe. Pan-Islamism is progressively fascinating to discuss because the awareness of it's not easy because of resistance from several celebrations.


Understanding Pan-Islamism

Pan-Islamism (al-Jami'ah al-Islamiyyah) is a religious-political belief developed by Muslim leaders in the last quarter of the 19th century. Extensively talking, Pan-Islamism can be translated as a feeling of solidarity amongst all Muslims (ukhuwah Islamiyah) which is instilled since the moment of the Prophet Muhammad. This is an important issue and constantly aims to be recognized now and then.


2 points can enhance the solidarity of Muslims, specifically the trip and the caliphate. Hajj is among the responsibilities of Muslims for those that are able and as a Pan-Islamism grand congress. Those that come from all edges of the globe discuss the specifics of their particular nations to refix with each other.


While the caliphate led by a caliph had once developed Islamic areas right into the previous Byzantine guideline, Persia and India remained in Europe via Spain, and before the Mongols led by Hulagu Khan ruined the facility of the Islamic federal government in Baghdad in 1258. The caliphate after that passed right into the hands of the Footrest Realm, although it wasn't recognized by all Muslims.


Read : History of Mamluk Dynasty


The History of the Development of Pan-Islamism

Pan-Islamism become a straight response to Western influences on the idea of ​​nationalism. The idea of ​​nationalism is considered qualified of splitting Muslims that were initially under the management of an Islamic federal government. Pan-Islamism is sustained by the idea of ​​an ummah based upon ukhuwah Islamiyyah, opening up clinical and universities, Capital as a facility for conferences and worship, and the presence of a caliph number.


This solidarity of Muslims is marked by the development of intellectual and religiopolitical movements that make individuals familiar with the importance of the role of community solidarity. The assertiveness of strengthening Islamic identification is gone along with the development of the trek at movement and spiritual filtration movements.


Wahhabism started to champ Pan-Islamism in Arabia, and it affected the Islamic globe in Indonesia. This movement looks to awaken Islam from its stagnancy and improve ethical decadence. The resurgence later on transformed right into an anti-Western movement when the West started to take Islamic areas.

Read : History of the Umayyad Caliphate


Western control of Islamic areas has made Muslims remove them from the location. But the forces of Islam that are not well organized make them fail in bringing out resistance. However, some Islamic resistance versus Western invaders may have produced outcomes, for instance in North Africa through the Sanusiyah tarekat movement led by Sayid Muhammad container Sanusi.


The influence of the West on Islam expanded, particularly in the 19th century. For instance, in 1858 the Mughal sultan was removed, and most of the Muslim nations were ruled by the West. This motivates leaders and reformers in Islam to think that Islam must rise with the solidarity of individuals. Among the developments is what happened in Turkey, with the main personality being Sultan Abdul Hamid II.


Advocates of Pan-Islamism

Sayid Jamaluddin al-Afghani (1839-1897)

Pan-Islamism thought was developed by several reformers, one of which was Jamaluddin al-Afghani. Al-Afghani welcomes Muslims to go back to the Koran and its pure teachings. This is because he sees that there are interpretations that lead to the incident of various institutions of thought and it's from this institution that teams with fanaticism occur, triggering disputes between teams.


Therefore al-Afghani has the aspiration to unify Muslims under the management of an Islamic federal government. He thinks that Islam is a religious belief that is appropriate for all countries, perpetuities, and all circumstances. 

But after he saw that the whole Islamic globe could not be under a solitary leader, he considered it sufficient to welcome the Islamic nations to have solid ties. Its single purpose is for Islamic nations to be governed by a federal government based upon the Qur'an, justice, consideration, and choosing the best individuals to look after them.


Along with the interior disputes between Muslims, inning accordance with al-Afghani, the Western influence that started to control Islamic locations has also made Muslims even worse off. For al-Afghani, the real Western risk must be faced at the same time in a brand-new way, specifically uniting individuals. Individuals should also be provided political opportunities and the opportunity to advance scientific research.


Al-Afghani succeeded in exerting his influence in several places such as Egypt, Iran, and several various other places. On the other hand, to get to a wider target market, Al-Afghani uses written media, specifically the al-Urwat al-Wusqa publication. In the publication al-Urwat al-Wusqa, many problems related to the unity of Islam on the planet are discussed, with editorials qualified of igniting a feeling of love for the homeland and disgust of colonialism.


In publishing this publication, al-Afghani entered contravened several celebrations that felt endangered by the ideas communicated by al-Afghani. Among the challenges originated from the British that during that time controlled India and Egypt. The British federal government banned the publication from distributing in India and Egypt. Until finally this publication quit publishing. However, this didn't quite al-Afghani's struggle to defend the rise of Islam.


Al-Afghani also attempted to obtain support for his ideas from Muslim rulers. So when he received an invite from Sultan Abdul Hamid II to visit Istanbul he consented to the request. Al-Afghani wishes that with the help of Sultan Abdul Hamid II he can expand his location of ​​renewal. He had also planned the facility of Jamiah Islamiyyah (Pan-Islamism) which brought with each other the nations of Persia, Afghanistan, and Turkey.


The Sultan sustained some of al-Afghani's ideas, particularly regarding Pan-Islamism to protect the Footrest Realm. However, both were not able to accomplish a common objective regarding this idea, because Sultan Hamid's desire to maintain autocracy wasn't according to al-Afghani's more autonomous thinking. Being afraid that al-Afghani's influence on freedom would certainly spread out, the sultan limited al-Afghani's flexibility by forbidding him from leaving Istanbul until the completion of his life.


Al-Afghani passed away on March 9, 1897, of chin cancer cells, and was hidden in Istanbul where in 1945 his grave was transferred to Kabul, Afghanistan. During that time, Al-Afghani's understanding was again combated as an initiative to free himself from Western influence.


Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876-1908)

As among the Footrest Sultans, Sultan Abdul Hamid II attempted to maintain the presence of the Footrest Realm. Sultan Abdul Hamid II poured Pan-Islamism right into modernization initiatives that were progressively being performed by the Footrest Realm. Inning accordance with Abdul Hamid II, Pan-Islamism is an online discussion forum to unify Muslims in all Islamic areas no matter of ethnicity, race, and language to recognize the self-reliance and well-being of Muslims.


The idea of ​​Pan-Islamism initially received a cozy invite amongst the Islamic globe because they thought that with this initiative they could fend off European invaders. The unity of the world's Muslims has long been looked for to be recognized and has never been broken from generation to generation.


But behind everything, the sultan had another objective, which was to be bordered by scholars and scholars to enhance his position. Therefore, he also welcomed Sayid Jamaluddin al-Afghani, that also had the same ideas about Pan-Islamism.


The Sultan had great respect for al-Afghani. Various centers needed by al-Afghani were provided and he was also enabled to express his ideas consisting of correcting the circumstance in the Footrest Realm during that time. But the sultan's main aim in doing so was to prevent al-Afghani from producing further contact with the Young Turks. 

Al-Afghani once resided in Paris and hung out a great deal with participants of the Young Turks. Also while in Paris, al-Afghani had formed an organization called the Organization for Improvement (al-Jam'iyyah as-Salihah) and suggested preparation for the improvement of the Footrest Realm.


Rashid Rida (1865-1935)

Another reformer that also supports the idea of ​​Pan-Islamism is Rasyid Rida. He was a trainee of Muhammad Abduh that was greatly affected by the ideas of Jamaluddin al-Afghani. Also, Rashid Rida released a publication just like al-Urwat al-Wusqa under the name al-Manar. Such as Al-Afghani, Rida also advocated the unity of Muslims (Pan-Islamism) (Pan-Islamic). 

The basis of this unity must be religious beliefs, not country or language. All Muslims should be unified under one idea, one ethical system, one academic system, and based on one lawful system. Because of this, he suggested a caliphate system with a caliph that could not guideline on outright terms.


Inning accordance with Rasyid Rida, the caliphate can unify all aspects, be it location, national politics, social-economic climate, society, and also religious beliefs. To recognize the unity of individuals, initially put hope in the Footrest Realm, but that hope was shed after Mustafa Kemal concerning power in Istanbul. After that Rida put his hope in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Namik Kemal (1840-1888)

The idea of ​​Pan-Islamism was also revealed by Namik Kemal. This idea was developed from the idea of ​​patriotism. The homeland he meant was the whole area of the Footrest Realm. He also wanted the unity of all Muslims under the management of the Footrest Realm the biggest Islamic to specify during that time. This idea was later on called Pan-Islamism.


Namik Kemal thinks that up until now the Islamic federal government whose supreme power remains in the hands of the caliph is outright. The caliph should be chosen by individuals and must be based on the constitution or the Shari'a. But what happened during that time was the opposite, the caliph was chosen based upon genetics so that individuals could not control the caliph in the application of the legislation.


The Influence of Pan-Islamism

The idea of ​​Pan-Islamism was tested by the Western invaders. They hesitate of being removed from Islamic lands if the Islamic globe unifies. Therefore, they stemmed this thought in various ways, consisting of by limiting Muslims from taking place the trip to the Capital. 

They know that the gathering of Muslims in the Capital isn't just for worship but also to trade ideas to resolve the problems that are afflicting Islamic nations. One instance is what was done by the Dutch colonialists that executed plans to prevent Muslims in Indonesia from bringing out the trip. The Netherlands has a plan of billing high fees for pilgrims and requiring them to show a specific quantity of money before leaving.


However, the plan executed by the Dutch didn't quit Indonesian Muslims from carrying out the trip to the Capital.

On the other hand, the Pan-Islamism pursued by Abdul Hamid II didn't bring the expected outcomes, besides political anxiety to cover the inequality that existed in the Footrest Realm. Significant changes occurred in Footrest Turkey because the outright federal government transformed right into an autonomous federal government by restricting the power of the sultan that wanted to survive with the previous system.


Concretely, proof of the success of Pan-Islamism championed by the numbers during that time was certainly challenging to show. But its wide influence is used as a resource of inspiration and a sign of commitment that motivates the struggle for the development of ummah solidarity when a dilemma occurs.


The development of the Islamic Globe Organization (Muslim Word Organization or Rabitah al-Alam al-Islam) in 1962 was a concrete form of the Fryingpan Islamism movement. The Islamic Globe Organization is sustained by 43 nations and arranges Islamic seminars and various other tasks. King Faisal and Shah of Iran 1965 required the importance of holding an Islamic Top (Top) for Muslim nations in the Capital. This idea belongs to an initiative to recognize the spirit of Frying pan Islamism.


A seminar held 5 years later on in Jeddah, attended by international priests of Islamic nations managed to develop a long-term organization which was called the Company of Islamic Conference (OIC) or the Company of the Islamic Conference (OIC) centered in Jeddah. The company is seen as an optimum initiative to accommodate the goals of revival and unification of Islam.